Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Definitions & Background Of Telecom & Internet Service Terms...A Comprehensive List

Below is a fairly comprehensive a list of Telecom and Internet Service Terms with definitions and/or background info for each. Hopefully you'll gain the necessary understanding you need for whatever your application.


10 Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using 50 ohm thin coaxial cable. Also known as Thin Ethernet.


100 Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification using two strands of multimode fibre-optic cable per link. To guarantee proper signal timing, a 100BaseFX link cannot exceed 1312 feet (400 meters) in length.


10 Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using two pairs of twisted-pair cabling.


100 Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification using UTP wiring. Like the 10BaseT technology on which it is based, 100BaseT sends link pulses over the network segment when no traffic is present. However, these link pulses contain more information than those used in 10BaseT.



Add/Drop Multiplexer. A device which inserts lower rate channel traffic [add] or removes the traffic [drop] from a higher rate aggregate channel in a synchronous transmission network (SDH or SONET). Typically adds or drops traffic at STM-1 or higher from a STM-64 aggregate signal.


Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop. A family of technologies used to deliver high-rate digital data over the existing copper local loop. One-way rates of up to 6 Mbps downstream (from the central office to the subscriber) and up to 640 kbps upstream have been achieved, although the technology is still evolving and higher data rates are expected in the future.

ADSL is expected to grow to become the main connection to the Net for the home and small business user due to the relatively low cost of the technology.


American National Standards Institute.

Application Layer

Seventh (top) layer in the OSI seven layer model. Layer Contains functions for particular applications services such as file transfer.


American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Method of encoding characters digitally.


Applications Service Provider. An organization which provides applications (word processing, accounting packages, e-business, etc) remotely over a network.


Asynchronous Transfer Mode. ATM is a connection-oriented packet switching technique where all cells follow the same path through the network. Cells are made up of 48 bytes of data plus a 5 byte header (53 bytes total). See for more details.


The percentage of time for which a circuit or system is
available for use. Carrier class is typically 99.999% - about five minutes downtime per year.



The high-speed - usually long-haul - central portions of a telecommunications network.


Describes the width of the pipe into the customer. ’Bandwidth on demand’ refers to the ability to increase the bandwidth as needed.


Baud - Unit of signaling speed in a communications system. Not to be confused with bps. One baud means one signal element transmitted per second.

A signal element may contain zero, one or more than one bit of information,depending on the method of modulation.


Border Gateway Protocol version 4. The major exterior gateway protocol used in the internet. Specified in RFC 1772.


BInary digiT. A 1 or a 0. The basic element of digital communication.


A specification for local area wireless communication. Bluetooth allows devices to discover each other and communicate without human intervention. See for more details.


Bit(s) per second. Also b/s. Transmission capacity of a channel or system.


Basic Rate Interface ISDN connection providing 2B+D, where B is a 64 kbps Bearer and D is a 16 kbps data channel.


Device that connects two or more networks together and forwards packets between them. The networks may use dissimilar protocols. A bridge operates at the data link layer (layer two) as opposed to a router which operates at layer three.


High-speed or high-capacity channel or system


8 bits of information.


Carrier Class

A statement of system or network availability. Carrier class is typically 99.999% - about five minutes of downtime per year.


Committed Information Rate. A specified amount of guaranteed bandwidth (measured in bits per second), usually on a Frame Relay service. Typically, when purchasing a Frame Relay service, a company can specify the CIR level they wish. The Frame Relay network vendor guarantees that frames not exceeding this level will be delivered. It's possible that additional traffic may also be delivered, but it's not guaranteed. Some Frame Relay vendors offer inexpensive services with a CIR equal to zero. This essentially means that the network will deliver as many frames as it can, but it doesn't guarantee any bandwidth level.


Customer Premises Equipment. This is the equipment at the customer site which terminates the connection into the network and connects to the LAN for private networks, Internet connectivity and voice services.


Dark Fiber

A fiber-optic strand with no optical transmission equipment. Customers add their own equipment and build their own network, retaining complete control over all aspects of it.


The basic unit of information passed across the Internet. It is a self-contained packet containing source and destination addresses as well as data. See also frame and packet.

Data Link Layer

Second layer in the OSI seven layer model. Layer Transmits packets from node to node.


deciBel. A logarithmic unit which defines the ratio between two powers P1 and P2. Ratio in dB = 10 log10 (P1/P2). The original unit was the Bel, named after Alexander Graham Bell, but is inconveniently large.

Used in power budgets to describe the optical loss over a particular link and therefore the optical power needed over the link in order to get a signal to the other end.

Used in fiber specifications to describe the loss per meter in the fibre, where the lower the loss the better.


Direct Broadcast Satellite - where the end-user receives the broadcast signal direct from the satellite. As opposed to a satellite feed to a cable TV head end, for subsequent distribution to end-users via the cable network.


Data Communication Network. Used to convey Network Management commands and reports around a communications network infrastructure.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A method of assigning an IP address dynamically to a device each time it connects to a network. DHCP simplifies network administration and means that normal PC's on a network do not need a fixed IP address.


Normally refers to chromatic Dispersion. Chromatic Dispersion is the variation of propagation velocity - speed of travel of the light - in an optical fiber with frequency - and with wavelength - causing the pulses of light to be degraded and merge into each other as the light travels down the fibre. See also PMD. Different types of fiber have different Dispersion characteristics. Management of Dispersion is key to network design at the fiber level.


Demilitarized Zone. Part of the network to which access is controlled by a Firewall.


Domain Name System. A distributed database which provides the mapping/translation between the domain name and the individual IP address allocated to that host.

Domain Name

The domain name is the unique name that identifies an organization on the Internet. The Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) includes the hostname and is easier to use than the numerical IP addresses which are used to route traffic to the correct destination. This means that you only need to remember the name of the web site rather than its IP address.

A given server may have or support more than one domain name, but a given FQDN points to only one host.

com Commercial
edu Educational
gov Government (US unless specified)
int International
mil Military (US unless specified)
net Network
org Non-profit organization

Subsequently the system was extended to allow an optional final two-letter country group. Examples are given below.

au Australia it Italy
br Brazil jp Japan
ca Canada mx Mexico
de Germany nl Netherlands
es Spain no Norway
fi Finland se Sweden
gr Greece tr Turkey
hu Hungary uk United Kingdom
in India us United States

DS-0, DS-1

Digital Service.


Dispersion Shifted fiber (G.653). fiber manufactured to achieve zero chromatic dispersion at 1550 nm - the wavelength of lowest loss.


Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Multiplexing of signals by transmitting them on typically eight or more different wavelengths on the same fibre. The ’dense’ prefix usually signifies systems where the spacing between wavelengths is smaller than the first generation WDM systems.



Describes the first level in the European digital hierarchy and is 30 channels of 64 kbps, plus two channels signaling and framing, to give an overall rate of 2.048 Mbps.


Erbium Doped fiber Amplifier. Optical fibres doped with the rare earth element erbium, which can amplify light in the wavelength region from 1530nm to 1625nm when pumped by an external light source. EDFAs allow an optical pulse to travel long distances before electrical regeneration is required.


A LAN access method defined in IEEE 802.3. It is a shared medium approach originally developed at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center using ideas from the University of Hawaii Aloha packet radio network. Available at 10 Mbps (10BaseT), 100 Mbps (100BaseT) and now 1 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet).

Ethernet functions at layers one and two of the OSI model.

Also known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Ethernet is the most common LAN mechanism within an organization See also Fast Ethernet.


European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Located at Sophia-Antipolis near Nice, France. Defines technical standards and interfaces in Europe. See also ANSI and ITU.


Fast Ethernet

A 100 Mbps version of 10 Mbps Ethernet.


Forward Error Correction. Technique for detecting and correcting errors (from imperfect transmission) by adding a small number of extra bits. FEC allows optical transmission over longer distances by correcting errors that can happen as the signal-to-noise ratio decreases with distance. See also Raman Amplification.

Fibre-optic Cable

Network cabling that employs one or more Optical Fibres.


Device placed between an organization’s private network and the Internet to authenticate incoming users. A Firewall is normally a specially configured computer which is set up to only allow specific incoming traffic and users onto the network.


1. A block of data in a specified format.
2. A rack housing telecommunications equipment.

Frame Relay

High-speed packet switching technique used to interconnect LANs. Capable of any payload up to 4096 bytes per packet. Defined in ITU-T I.122. Typically used to build VPN's, particularly where guarantees of bandwidth are required.


Four Wave Mixing. Describes the generation of unwanted sidebands when two or more high-power optical signals exist in the same non-ideal medium.

FWM is one of the elements that need to be taken into account when designing optical networks, and must be minimized if interference is to be avoided.


File Transfer Protocol. Operates at layers five, six and seven of the OSI model and allows log-on to a remote host, directory listing and file transfer.



109 bits.


The router which provides the connection between the LAN and the WAN.


Global Positioning System. Allows a GPS device to determine its location to better than 20m anywhere on, or above, the Earth by interpreting the signals from up to five orbiting satellites.


The process of combining partially filled trunks into a smaller number of fully filled trunks.


Global System for Mobile communications. Used by second generation mobile phones to connect to the mobile networks.

ITU-T recommendation



HyperText Markup Language. Simple hypertext document formatting language that uses tags to indicate how a given part of a document should be interpreted by a viewing application, such as a Web browser.


HyperText Transfer Protocol. Part of the TCP/IP suite. The underlying protocol of WORLd Wide Web pages, used to communicate between the user’s browser and the Web server.


Central connecting point for star-connected circuits. Active hubs contain regeneration facilities.



Internet Architecture Board. Board of internet work researchers who discuss issues pertinent to Internet architecture. Responsible for appointing a variety of Internet-related groups.


Internet Engineering Task Force. Task force consisting of over 80 working groups responsible for developing Internet standards (produced as RFC's). The IETF operates under the auspices of ISOC.


In-Line Amplifier.


The interconnection of computers across the world that evolved from the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency).

The Internet is made up of many networks each run by a different company and interconnected at peering points. The common use of IP and Internet standards allows users connected to one network to communicate with users on another network.


Internet Protocol. Defines the unit of information passed between systems providing a basic packet delivery service within the TCP/IP. IP is a standard that describes how packets of data are transported across the Internet and recognized as incoming messages.

IP addresses/ addressing (IPv4)

The unique 32 bit address for a specific TCP/IP host in the Internet.


IPSec provides security for transmission of sensitive information over unprotected networks such as the Internet. IPSec acts at the network layer, protecting and authenticating IP packets between participating IPSec devices.


Latest version of IP ( IPv6 uses 128 bit address space compared with the 32 bit IPv4 address.


Indefeasible Right of Use. The provision of the Right of Use for a long period of time, usually 15+ years, of a bandwidth service - dark fibre, wavelengths or SDH - for an up front fee.


Integrated Services Digital Network. See also PRI.


International Standards Organization


Internet Society. International non-profit organization founded in 1992 to coordinate the evolution and use of the Internet. In addition, ISOC delegates authority to other groups related to the Internet, such as the IAB.


Internet Service Provider. Connects the end-user to the Internet.


International Telecommunications Union



Variation in timing, or time of arrival, of received signals; an unwanted lack of perfection which can lead to bit areas.



One thousand bits (103).



Local Area Network. Used within a building to link computers and other devices, such as printers. Typically uses Ethernet.


Time taken to deliver a packet from the source to the receiver. Includes propagation delay (the time taken for the electrical or optical signals to travel the distance between the two points) and processing delay. Due to the distance to a satellite and back (over 34,000km each way), the latency when communicating via a satellite connection is at least 270 milliseconds, making interactive services difficult, compared to a delay of about 10 milliseconds across Europe via fibre.

Local Loop

Originally, the pair of wires (loop) between the subscriber (to a telephone system) and the local telephone exchange (switch or office). Now used as a generic term to describe the connection between the last switch/routing point and the subscriber, no matter what technology is used to deliver the service, nor what service (voice, data etc.) is delivered.



Metropolitan Area Network.


One million bits (106 bits).


Mode Field Diameter of an optical fibre. The diameter at which the electric and magnetic field strengths are reduced to 1/e of their maximum values (for a Gaussian distribution in a single mode fibre, and where e is the base of natural logarithms, 2.71828...). This is the practical replacement for core diameter in single-mode fibre.


Management Information Base. Database of Network Management information that is used and maintained by a Network Management protocol such as SNMP or CMIP. The value of a MIB object can be changed or retrieved using SNMP or CMIP commands, usually through a GUI Network Management system. MIB objects are organized in a tree structure that includes public (standard) and private (proprietary) branches.


MOdulator/DEModulator. Device for converting data signals to/from forms suitable for transmission over an analogue voice channel.


MultiProtocol Label Switching. A short fixed-length label is generated that acts as a shorthand representation of an IP packet's header. Subsequent routing decisions (made by Label Switched routers) are made based on the MPLS label and not the original IP address. This new technology allows core network routers to operate at higher speeds without needing to examine each packet in detail, and allows more complex services to be developed, allowing discrimination on a QoS basis.


Multiplex Section


Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring


Mean Time Between Failures. A key metric for the quality of equipment and a determining factor in the overall SLA that can be achieved.


Mean Time To Repair. The usual time taken to fix a problem that occurs on the network. Targets are normally set within an SLA and depend on the priority of the fault.



Network Address Translation. Used by a Firewall or Gateway to hide LAN IP addressing from devices on the WAN.


Non Dispersion Shifted fiber (G.652)

Network Layer

Third layer in the OSI seven layer model. Determines routes based on network address.

Network Management

The processes of managing, monitoring, and controlling a communications network. Modern Network Management systems also include the ability to re-configure network elements remotely.


Network Operation Center


nanometer. 10-9 meter


Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted fiber (G.655). Optical fiber which has been optimized for DWDM operation by having a small but finite amount of dispersion present at 1550nm.



Group of 8 data bits.


Optical Carrier - x.


Optical Distribution Frame.

This is the point where the optical fiber within the backbone network terminates and the customer's equipment of fiber connects, providing the demarcation point between i-21 and the customer.

Optical Fiber

A method of guiding light over long distances with very little reduction on strength (attenuation or loss). A central core of high-refractive index material - usually very pure glass - is covered with a cladding of lower refractive index material. Modern fibres have loss in the order of 0.25 dB/km, so 1 km of fiber has less loss than a pair of ordinary spectacles or reading glasses.


From Optoelectronics. The combination of optics and electronics.


Optical Return Loss. Ratio of power reflected (from a connector or other discontinuity) to incident power. Usually expressed in dB.


Open Systems Interconnection. An ISO standard defining a communications model with seven layers. The layers are: Layer 1 Physical layer - electrical or optical signals Layer 2 Data Link layer - transmits packets from node to node Layer 3 Network layer - determines routes based on network address Layer 4 Transport layer - manages end-to-end delivery, including flow control and error recovery Layer 5 Session layer - initiates and manages communications session Layer 6 Presentation layer - performs any necessary character code conversion to provide transparent communications Layer 7 Application layer - contains functions for particular applications services such as file transfer and file access.

More than one layer may be combined into one module or process.



A block of data. The terms packet, frame, and datagram are often used interchangeably.


Internet interconnection as equals (peers) and thus no billing between the parties. This is the normal method of interconnection between the sub-networks which make up the Internet. Contrasts with supplier/ customer interconnection, e.g. ISP and end customer.


1015 bits.

Physical Layer

First layer in the OSI seven layer model. The electrical or optical signals physically transported across the network.


Almost synchronous because bits are stuffed into the frames as padding and the call’s location varies slightly - jitters - from frame to frame.


Polarisation Mode Dispersion. Dispersion caused by different material properties for different planes of polarisation (direction of the electric field) in an optical fibre.


Point of Presence (or Access Node). A site where customers can connect into the backbone network.


Plain Old Telephone Service

Power Budget

The optical budget in dB over a specific network link. Usually quoted as an ’end-of-life’ figure which takes into account some margin for repairs and expected very small deterioration in the quality of the fiber over time.

Presentation Layer

Sixth layer in the OSI seven layer model. Performs any necessary character code conversion to provide transparent communications.


Primary Rate Interface. ISDN connection at E1 (30B + D at 2.048 Mbps) or T1 (23B + D at 1.544 Mbps) speed, where B is a 64 kbps Bearer and D is a 64 kbps data channel.



Quality of Service. A definition of the service provided to a customer.


Raman Amplification

A technique for amplifying optical signals in which high-power laser light is sent in the direction opposite that traveled by the data signals, transforming part of the transmission fiber into an amplifier of the signals passing through it. Raman Amplification is named after the scientist who discovered the phenomenon in the scattering of light, called the Raman Effect, in 1928. Typically used to extend the distance that optical signals can be transmitted. See also FEC.


Remote Dial-In User Service. Database for authenticating modem and ISDN connections and for tracking connection time.


Request For Comments. Document series used as the primary means for communicating information about the Internet. Some RFC's are designated by the IAB as Internet standards. Most RFC's document protocol specifications such as Telnet and FTP but some are humorous or historical. RFC's are available online from


Réseaux IP Européens. Group formed to coordinate IP based networks in Europe. This is the organization within Europe that allocates IP addresses to ISP's who in turn allocate them to customers.


Device connecting two or more networks together which forwards packets between them. Routers read the network address and use routing tables to find the best route between the networks. The routing tables can be created automatically by the system. Routers can also implement load balancing and generate statistics. A router operates at the network layer (layer three) as opposed to a bridge which operates at layer two.



Type of optical connector. Type SC, Super Physical Contact. The type SC connector was originally developed by NTT of Japan. The suffixes /PC, /SPC, /APC are terms which describe connector end-faces and also relate to the ORL designation.

PC means Physical Contact, a description of the contacting spherical end-face. PC has come to mean an ORL greater than 35db. SPC means Super PC, which means a PC connector with ORL >45db.

APC means Angled PC (the end face is polished at an angle, usually 8°) which improves ORL to >65db.


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.

Session Layer

Fifth layer in the OSI seven layer model. Initiates and manages communications session.


Standard Generalized Markup Language. Describes the relationship between a document's contents and its structure in an open (not vendor-specific) format. SGML is defined in "ISO 8879:1986 information processing - text and office systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)."


Le Système International (d’Unités). The International system (metric) of units of measure.


Switched Multimegabit Data Service


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Part of the TCP/IP suite. This is the protocol used for transporting email over the Internet, between email servers (which hold and store email) and clients (which allow users to read the email).


Simple Network Management Protocol. An application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. Part of the TCP/IP suite.


Synchronous Optical Network.


Term used to describe unsolicited email or newsgroup posts, often in the form of commercial announcements. The act of sending a Spam is known as Spamming.


1. A method of reducing network traffic by simulating local responses to 'keep alive' routine queries to distant devices. Typically used to conserve WAN bandwidth or to avoid unnecessary call set-up and resulting phone call charges.

2. A method of gaining unauthorized access to a system (hacking) by simulating the identity of a genuine user or of a trusted entity.


Secure SHell. Protocol or program for secure logon to a remote host over an insecure network.


Secure Socket Layer. Encryption technology for the Web used to provide secure transactions such as the transmission of credit card numbers for e-commerce.


Type of optical connector. The ’straight tip’ connector developed by AT&T, it features a physically contacting non-rotating 2.5mm ferrule design and bayonet connector-to-adapter mating.

STM-1, STM-x

Synchronous Transport Module - 1, x.


In a telecom's system synchronous means ’bits from one telephone call are always in the same location inside a digital transmission frame’.



Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol


1012 bits.

Traffic Engineering

The process of determining the amount of network capacity (circuits, bandwidth) required to handle a specified amount of traffic without exceeding a specified number of lost calls or dropped packets.

Transport Layer

Fourth layer in the OSI seven layer model. Manages end-to-end delivery, including flow control and error recovery.

T-1, T-x

A T-1 system transports a DS-1 signal at 1.544 Mbps which comprises 24 DS-0 channels multiplexed together.


A multi-channel communication link such as an E-1 or T-1.



Universal Mobile Telephone Service. Third generation cellular phone technology.


Uniform Resource Locator. Formerly Universal Resource Locator. A form of host address used on the Internet - e.g. is the URL for the T1 Shopper web site


Unshielded Twisted Pair. Cabling with typically four twisted pairs (eight wires), used for cabling within a building. Typically used for 10BaseT cabling.


Virtual Private Network

Virtual Private Network. A network provided to the customer which is invisible to any other users of the backbone network.

This provides security to the customer (if the network cannot be seen it cannot be interfered with) and allows Quality of Service specific to the customer to be provided. VPN's allow the customer’s view of the network to be greatly simplified and tailored to specific requirements.


Voice over IP. The ability to carry Packetised voice over an IP-based Internet with POTS-like functionality, reliability and voice quality.



Wide Area Network. As distinct from Local Area Network. A WAN connects multiple LANs together. Typically an ISP or service provider provides the WAN into which a company will connect their LANs from each site.


Wireless Application Protocol. Delivers information and services to This is essentially a minimal form of the Web for mobile phones.


Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Generic term for the technique of simultaneously transmitting more than one wavelength of light down an optical fibre. Also see DWDM



eXtensible Markup Language. Text markup language designed to enable the use of SGML on the World-Wide Web. XML allows customized markup languages to be defined.

ITU-T recommendations s for data communications.



Cable Design

Fibre types SM - fiber in accordance with ITU-T G.652, G.653, G.654 or G.655

Number of fibres 96

Strength member ... 3.0 mm fiber reinforced polymer rod

Stranding and coding ... 6 loose tubes are stranded around the strength member. Each of the tubes contain up to 16 fibres

Filling ... Thixotropic jelly

Wrapping ... Double layer of polyester tape

Sheath Inner ... 1.0 mm polyethylene, 2.5 ± 0.5% carbon black

Sheath Middle ... 1.5 mm lead

Sheath Outer ... 1.8 mm polyethylene, 2.5 ± 0.5% carbon black

Armouring ... Bedding, polypropylene yarn, all bedded in bitumen. Steel wire, bedded and floated in bitumen. Double layer of polypropylene yarn, bedded in bitumen

ITU-T Recommendations

G series recommendation - Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks

G.652 ... Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable

G.653 ... Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber cable

G.654 ... Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single- mode optical fiber cable

G.655 ... Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion shifted single-mode optical fiber cable

G.692 ... Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers

G.703 ... Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces (includes Physical Interfaces for 2.048 Mbps E-1)

G.704 ... Synchronous frame structures used at primary and secondary hierarchical levels. (Includes Framing Specifications for 2.048 Mbps E-1)

H series recommendation - Audiovisual and multimedia systems

H.261 ... Video codec for audiovisual services at p x 64 kbit/s

H.263 ... Video coding for low bit rate communication

H.320 ... Video/audio conferencing over switched digital telephone networks

H.322 ... Video/audio/data conferencing over QoS packet switched networks

H.323 ... Video/audio/data conferencing over non QoS packet switched networks

H.324 ... Video/audio conferencing over POTS

V series recommendation - Data communication over the telephone network

V.34 ... A modem operating up to 33 600 bit/s on the switched telephone network

V.90 ... Digital modem and analogue modem pair for use on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) at data signaling rates of up to 56 000 bit/s downstream and up to 33 600 bit/s upstream

X series recommendation - Data networks and open system communication

X.21 ... Interface between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-terminating Equipment for synchronous operation on public data networks

X.21 ... bis Use on public data networks of Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) which is designed for interfacing to synchronous V-Series modems

X.25 ... Packet Switched Public Data Networks (PSPDN)

X.75 ... Packet switched signaling system between public networks providing data transmission services

X.400 ... Message Handling System (Electronic Mail)

X.500 ... Distributed electronic directories (Directory Services)

European and North American Digital Hierarchies Standard andwidth

DS-0 ... 64 Kb/s

DS-1, T-1 ... 1.544 Mb/s

DS-3, T-3 ... 44.736 Mb/s = 28 * T-1

E-1 ... 2.048 Mb/s = 30 voice channels

E-2 ... 8.448 Mb/s = 4 * E-1

E-3 ... 34.368 Mb/s = 16 * E-1

STM-1, OC-3 ... 155.52 Mb/s

STM-4, OC-12 ... 622.08 Mb/s

STM-16, OC-48 ... 2.5 Gb/s

STM-64, OC-192 ... 10 Gb/s

OC-768 ... 40 Gb/s

European/SDH standards - E-1/2/3 and STM 1/4/16/64

US/SONET standards - DS-0/1/3, T-1/3 and OC-3/12/48/192/768

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Saturday, September 24, 2016

How Do You Improve WAN Application Performance?

Let's say you are a CIO of a company with established WAN infrastructure and are getting complaints from the users .....that the applications are sluggish. Will you contact the network vendor (e.g. Cisco, Juniper), invest in WAN accelerators (e.g. Packeteer, Riverbed), or hire a consulting firm to investigate? What will you do to resolve the situation?

To start....take a step back and take a deep breath. You're jumping the gun suggesting the WAN is responsible. More information is needed.

The moral of the story....get data first.

Find out what is the performance of specific actions when the client is running in the same building as the application server.

Repeat that for a client in various other locations and compare the results.

This may point to specific WAN links to check. In other words what are the bandwidths and response times across different segments. [Are some locations longer than others, does distance seem to play a part, is there one specific congestion point.]

It may also point out the need to analyze the client traffic flow. Does the application require 100+ round trips between the client and server (over the WAN) for even the simplest of actions? Something like this can only be solved by changing the application. (Don't care who the providers are. You can't do much about the speed of light around the globe that many times.)

So part of the answer is......asking any specific vendor to "fix" it before you know what "it" is will waste your time.

The short answer is.....get data, analyze it, then fix.

Performance problems can be attributable to the network, the servers, the database(s) and applications themselves, so its important to step back and look at the complete infrastructure including the applications and all their components before assuming the WAN is the culprit.

Ask yourself......

- What is the current “end-user experience” for business applications in terms of performance and availability?

- What is the current response time contribution of client, network and server tiers?

- What are the current resource utilization levels on the critical servers that support the business?

- What is the current utilization of network resources (i.e., WAN links) and which applications are using the most bandwidth?

- Which servers, workstations and business locations represent the “top talkers” on the network?

If you believe that you already have these questions answered.....and your primary suspect is still WAN need to ask whether you have sufficient bandwidth for the application traffic traversing the WAN and/or whether the problem applications are suitable for WAN deployment in the first place. (A chatty 2-tier database app is not going to scale well across the WAN no matter how much h/w you throw at it).

A network monitoring tool that can help deliver a comprehensive network asessment over a period of time, be it peak volume traffic a 24hr work day or busy business period, can help you understand the worst offenders. Once you know who they are you can do two things .....

- look at the network readiness for the application(s)

- look at the applications themselves to determine whether they are optimized for your environment.

If the issue is just bandwidth, the question becomes how much more do I need? A network profiling tool with predictive capabilities can help you assess the impact of network changes on application performance and whether more bandwidth or reduced latency will solve the problem.

If latency is an issue you may seriously have to look at the problematic applications in question to see whether they are suitable for WAN deployment. The same profiling capability from above can help you determine the effects of less round-trips between client and server(s) allowing you to determine the cost/benefits between changing the application or the infrastructure.

Dont just thow accelerators at it however without first knowing what the problem is. They may be a waste of money for certain applications and not solve the problem.

This is a typical issue for most organizations at some point in time and I would follow the steps below to resolve it.

First, define and quantify the problem. Poor WAN application performance can be the results of many things; lack of bandwidth, failing network gear, telecom vendor issues, poor application design, unanticipated network demand. The symptoms of the problems need to be documented. Does it happen at a particular time of the day or is it constant? Does it occur when a certain application is running? Which users are effect? What nodes on the WAN are effected? Is it a localized issue or does it seem to effect several locations? Have there been a changes made to the WAN recently (new hardware, new applications, new telecom vendors, etc).

To be able to define the issue you have to start collecting good information to help in the process. Places to start collecting information would include:

- Help desk. Great source for defining symptoms of the issue.

- Network Gear. Routers, Switches, CSU/DSU logs can be reviewed for problem identification.

- Telecom vendors. Especially for shared networks (frame relay, atm, etc) they will be able to provide statistics on burst rates and usage.

- User Interviews. Some users don’t log all their problems

Through these sources you should be able to characterize the problem. And the nature of the problem will dictate the solution. Some problems and solutions would include....

- Poorly Designed WAN Application. Possible solutions are; re-work the application, move servers in network topology, increase WAN bandwidth or use terminal server software (i.e. Citrix). The band aid and no brainer approach is to use Citrix and take the WAN out of the equation.

- Poor Telecom Vendor support. Possible solutions are changing out Telecom vendors or have them re-engineer the links. For example, move from Frame Relay to Point-to-Point topology. But be careful. Most of the time the last mile is usually the same physical medium which may be the problem. Meaning changing topology would not help.

- Limited Bandwidth. The possible solution is increasing bandwidth. Sometimes natural organizational growth and uses of the WAN account for the poor WAN performance and you have to buy more bandwidth. Or, once again, you can limit this growth by falling back to using Citrix or maybe relocating servers.

- Failing network gear. The possible solution would primarily be either replacing components or the whole piece of equipment. This is the one situation you might want to consult with an outside expert depending on the level of skill you have internally.

- Odd situations. There are always the unusual situations. For example; I have seen WANs slow down when people start to email around MPEGs. This is more of a policy issue.

The bottom line is sometimes you may have to bring a consultant in. But in many situations, by using common sense, you can determine the cause and solution to the problem internally.

Should analysis show that increased bandwidth is can obtain no cost assistance in finding the right bandwidth solution for your specific application at

DS3 Bandwidth

Their no cost support covers T1, DS3, OC3, OC12, OC48, OC192, MPLS, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet in all possible configurations....fractional, full, bonded, integrated, point-to-point, private, etc.


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Wednesday, September 21, 2016

The Perfect Storm Is Descending On Healthcare IT....Now What?

Healthcare IT is undergoing a massive shift in structure and compliance standards. Hospitals and clinics that have already implemented electronic medical record or electronic health record (EMR/EHR) systems are now contending with new HIPAA logging requirements under the HITECH Act. Healthcare organizations that are still in the planning or implementation stages for EMR/EHR systems are now juggling that implementation with new compliance requirements and Meaningful Use guidelines.

A breach of Protected Health Information can result in serious financialconsequences, loss of patient trust, and burdensome remediation efforts for your organization. Yet the regulatory and compliance requirements for the healthcare industry continue to expand rapidly and it can be difficult for even the best IT teams to keep up with the latest requirements and solutions for meeting those mandates.

MegaPath Managed Security Services for Healthcare are designed to assist healthcare delivery organizations in meeting HIPAA standards, including those imposed under HITECH. If your organization also requires compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) and the Health Information Trust Alliance (HITRUST) Common Security Framework (CSF), MegaPath Managed Security Services deliver essential capabilities for meeting those standards.

Whether based in the MegaPath cloud or in your premises, our Managed Security Services provide a comprehensive, multilayered approach to network security that helps protect your systems and patient data while maintaining security compliance. Our Security-as-a-Service (SaaS) offerings work together as a security best practice to reduce the risks associated with blended network attacks, as well as to coordinate security alerting, logging, reporting, compliance, and response activity.

Security Services to Address HIPAA Technical Safeguards

The MegaPath Security Services incorporate comprehensive Unified Threat Management (UTM) services that address many of the technical safeguards defined in the HIPAA rules. MegaPath UTM services include Advanced Firewall, Intrusion Prevention, Antivirus, Web Filtering, Anti-spam, Web Application Control, and Data Leak Prevention. All MegaPath UTM services can be fully implemented in the cloud, on your premises, or in a hybrid configuration to provide defense-in-depth security.

Security and Process Monitoring Based on Best Practices

Healthcare organizations need to rigorously monitor the security of their networks and host systems from a regulatory perspective, and from the perspective of security best practices. Your team also needs to continuously identify and assess new IT threats and vulnerabilities to stay ahead of security risks.

MegaPath offers several managed solutions to support these efforts including Managed Logging with real-time log review, File Integrity Monitoring for servers and critical endpoints, and Vulnerability Scanning Services to evaluate the effectiveness of your existing security controls.

Additionally, MegaPath offers a portal-based Security Information Management platform that allows you to track remediation activities, correlate and report on suspicious activities, and produce audit reports to demonstrate due diligence for running an effective information security program.

A Cost-Effective Solution for EMR Transition

Conversion to EMR/EHR systems means that many healthcare organizations do not have the expertise or resources to manage the new security concerns that go along with digitized records. And after making the associated large capital expenditure necessary to modernize IT systems and networks, it is important to control ongoing costs.

MegaPath Managed Security Services help to address these security and cost concerns. Security for the EMR/EHR systems and network connections is managed around-the-clock by MegaPath’s network experts. And with a comprehensive, outsourced solution, you can easily plan for ongoing network security costs.

The MegaPath Suite of Managed Security Services Includes:

- Managed Firewall

Features deep packet inspection with up to 500 firewall policies that are configurable via our secure Web portal. This service also includes periodic and on-demand reporting.

- Intrusion Prevention

Detects multi-layered and blended attacks for both known and unknown threats. Powerful anomaly detection functions identify and stop zero-day threats. The MegaPath intrusion prevention solution supports all network types, including wireless with rogue access point detection.

- Anti-Malware/Anti-Virus

Comprehensive, real time, and network-based anti-virus, anti-malware, and anti-crimeware detection, with both signature-based and rules-based blocking of known and zero-day attacks.

- Web Filtering

Manage employee Internet access with White list/Black list and policy-based content filtering to reduce bandwidth consumption and enforce Internet use policies in real-time.

- Anti-Spam

Automatically detects spam email and optionally tags or deletes it based on configurable policy rules before the messages can consume valuable bandwidth or email storage.

- Application Control

Provides granular, precise control of specific applications such as, instant messaging, chat, voice, or video on social media sites such as Facebook or MySpace.

- Data Leak Prevention

In real-time, detects and prevents sensitive data from being transferred outside of the organization, including data such as credit card numbers or patient information.

- Managed Logging

Provides cloud-based log collection, as well as automated daily log review, correlation, alerting, reporting, and archiving. Real-time portal tools for log management enhance your security operations and compliance.

- Vulnerability Scanning

A self-service, on-demand vulnerability scanning portal identifies and remediates security vulnerabilities in real time. MegaPath also offers certified quarterly scans for PCI compliance.

- Security Information Management

Offers the portal-based workflow management and tracking necessary to demonstrate due diligence in meeting requirements for organizational security policies and compliance reporting.

- File Integrity Monitoring

Enables real-time monitoring of critical system or configuration files for unauthorized access or changes. (Supports only Windows-based host systems)

Healthcare Organization Benefits:

• Reduce Security and Compliance Costs
• Improve Network and Data Security
• Simplify Regulatory Compliance
• Access 24 / 7 / 365 Security and Network Expertise
• Gain Peace of Mind
• Receive One Monthly Bill

To learn more simply request a free quote here ....

Healthcare IT Solution

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Saturday, September 17, 2016

Independent Circuit Monitoring...How To Be Master Of The Chaos & Stay 1 Step Ahead Of Disaster

Should the carriers really do their own circuit monitoring?

“I’m not sure why your cloud-based phone system isn’t working. What I do know is that it’s not our fault!”

All of us who call ourselves telecom and cloud brokers have heard it a million times: The customer has a bad cloud (hosted voice, remote application, etc.) experience and calls us to complain. We call the underlying service providers, all of whom claim they aren’t the guilty party. The customer doesn’t care. We look like schmucks. And so it goes.

How do we fix the cloud? We can’t control it, we don’t own it, and yet our customers still expect us to stand behind the products we sell.

As the communication world moves to a distributed model, otherwise called the “Cloud,” the overall user experience is affected by multiple provider environments. The carriers play a critical role in connecting Cloud users with their applications, which are hosted in a data center. Many times user traffic traverses many different carriers en route, creating further confusion and finger-pointed when things take a turn for the worse.

Independent Circuit Monitoring is the Answer

Given that the carriers are such a critical cog in the Cloud world, being able to monitor their services, collect data, and analyze their performance is equally important. Circuit monitoring with real-life data takes the guesswork out of troubleshooting.

Carriers that have made continued investments in their properly designed infrastructure have nothing to fear with independent, third-party circuit monitoring. It’s the carriers who are on the threshold of having a major outage who should be worried.

Much like a major earthquake, networks often give warning signs when they are on the cusp of failure. Ping times become longer. Traceroutes show a growing number of hops to reach the end destination. Often these warning signs happen right underneath the nose of the customer and the carrier, especially if the customer isn’t spending a fortune on the service. Knowing when the network is showing signs of weakness is critical to avoiding a Cloud disaster.

And when disaster does strike, time converts into money. Quickly solving the problem is the name of the game, and having analytics that point directly to the culprit becomes invaluable. With historical performance reports, we have the ability to point the carrier’s technical support group directly to the problem, promoting us from the ranks of the outside observer to the ranks of the super-hero fix-it man/woman.

The age of the Cloud is here. The age of “it’s not our fault” has passed with the rise of the third-party circuit monitoring package, via FreedomFire Communications, powered by VXPulse. This service is included for free in all our bandwidth sales regardless of carrier. Bad broadband quality, lack of stability, and service outages have nowhere to hide.

Buh-bye dark carriers! Hello, transparency.

To take advantage of the independent circuit monitoring we offer with all our bandwidth circuits (FREE) simply ask here....easy as 1, 2, 3: Business Bandwidth With Free Circuit Monitoring

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Wednesday, September 14, 2016

How To Leverage Software Defined Networking (SDN) & Make The Most Of The Possibilities

Tyler Smith of Telarus dives deep into Software Defined Networking below to help you better understand why it is becoming all the rave as of late and how to leverage it.

Traditional WAN Challenge

People lean towards an MPLS network because it provides interconnectivity with Quality of Service and Security. The other consideration is the cost. It is probably the most expensive bandwidth you can buy. For instance, a T-1 MPLS might average around $300 for a single meg and a half.

Internet with VPN Challenge

Some folks have turned to Internet as a solution with VPN over the top of that. This solution does solve some of the bandwidth constraint problems, as you can bring in more internet access and have additional bandwidth and layer on VPN to securely get traffic from one location to another. The challenges are the inability to protect certain types of traffic over anything else when it is Internet based. Firewall, router, VPN configuration, branch heavy equipment, and configuration are also required. Still, the benefit is a low-cost high-bandwidth, albeit you can’t prioritize traffic over the top of it.

SDN created Hybrid WAN

The industry is shifting towards software defined networking. It is also known by several other buzz words like just SDN or Hybrid WAN. SDN gives you the look and feel of what an MPLS solution brings to the table, with the ability to prioritize certain traffic over another. It’s configuration adjustment is more simplified than a traditional router switch. You can also bring significantly more bandwidth for about the same money you would spend on a traditional network. Here are the main benefits at a glance:

* Enterprise-grade Performance
* Rapid Branch Deployment
* Cost-Effective Delivery Model

Software Defined WAN from Branch

At a high-level, the image below shows what an SDN WAN looks like. Instead of bringing in an MPLS network into a branch location, you can bring in two diverse internet connections. One is delivered on a cable modem with 50 megs of bandwidth, and the secondary a 4G router. In an SDN environment, a router is placed on the edge to provide a couple of features:

* Brings together the two connections
* Load balancing
* Proactive analysis of what is happening on that network
* Creates the ability to do a VPN for office Internet connectivity to connect branches to headquarters
* Because it is internet based, traffic that is destined for the internet can hop off right there

By application and by destination, this software can make intelligent routing decisions. Thus, if you have traffic destined for Office 365, it will decide if the cable or the 4G path is best, based on who has the best peering and who is the closest. Voice and video can be prioritized whether is outgoing or incoming. You can create a quality of service policy on both sides giving you end to end performance control that you would expect. So yes, you can get the performance of an MPLS solution with an SDN WAN solution even though it’s over an internet connection. Internet service is readily available and very cost effective as opposed to MPLS environments.


SDN Unified Communication Features

With voice or IP communications, the ability to prioritize traffic is important. An SDN router keeps calls up and functioning in the event of any congestion, even Internet-based congestion. The router will duplicate the voice traffic and keep a secondary stream ready to go, so if it degrades while flowing on the primary connection, it will instantaneously flow over to the secondary connection and keep the call alive.

* Application Recognition and Quality of Service Policy
* Dynamic Application Steering
* On Demand Link Conditioning

Voice and Video Error Correction On DEMAND

The image below reflects data collected with some intentional testing. In this example environment, we see two internet sources with high latency detected on one of the links. Seeing this, the application reroutes the traffic across the secondary link, and it doesn't skip a beat. As things change over time, the traffic comes back and becomes more normal, and switches back and forth across the two solutions. That’s a peek into the magic.

Voice And Video Error Correction Image

SDN Cloud Driven Policy Easy Deployment

One of the other challenges in the industry with firewalled and traditional environments is the difficulty in creating the configuration in the equipment. If you have ever unboxed a Cisco firewall and wanted to create a VPN tunnel, it is a very complex setup which might require outside resources and other heavy lifting. In an SDN, it’s more of a cloud driven application where these devices put out on the edge are configured in a portal with a simple configuration that is easy to manage and adjust real time performance.

Simple Monitoring and Troubleshooting from the Cloud

Because these solutions are driven from cloud interface, the administration of devices can be done anywhere and are simple enough that anyone can take a look and see how the network is performing.


Q: What happens if you have Internet connection on both links?
A: Performance would suffer and I would recommend to look at two different diverse mediums where the chances of both having issues would be slim to none. Examples would be fiber Internet backed up with coax, a coax backed up with a DSL, or a DSL backed up with a 4G.

Q: Is there room for innovation with this technology?
A: An SDN solution gives great flexibility in your organization to bump up Salesforce in priority over youtube during the end of the month and adjust it back during the beginning of the month. Its portal driven and simple to administer.

Q: What are some of the providers that availabe through FreedomFire Communications?
A: Freewire brings this in as an overlay to any service we offer. They use a back end solution from VeloCloud and I would encourage you to visit their website to see how they explain how it works. Vonage now also has VeloCloud instances as well. There are other negotiations being finalized currently to offer more providers. Cisco and their iWan product do this type of concept.

Q: Are any of the mentioned suppliers offering demos?
A: They will be soon providing demos. More to come.

Q: Do we know what a user cutoff point would be?
A: The VeloCloud solution from Freewire scales up to a gig of throughput. The edges adjust as more bandwidth is added.

Q: How does OpenFlow differ from SDN?
A: OpenFlow is the same technology that enables SDN at the core.

Q: From a hardware standpoint, is there much latency that’s introduced by the SD WAN controller?
A: The performance is tied to the bandwidth. If you’re getting a tier-1 providers internet, you will have less latency than a tier-4.

Q: Is it accurate to say that SDN is a poor-man’s MPLS? Or do the other benefits really make it another flavor altogether?
A: It can be considered an MPLS replacement.

Q: Does the VeloCloud solution support the generation of netflow records?
A: Netflow is a way that Cisco routers and switches use to take a look at traffic flow. This information has to be interpreted by something like our VX solution. An SDN router inherently has the software to show you how traffic is being marked as a high-low priority without the information interpretation processing.

For FREE assistance finding the right SDN solution to meet your business's requirements simply ask here....easy as 1, 2, 3: SDN Solutions

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Saturday, September 10, 2016

Don't Overlook Technology Requirements In Design & Construction Of Commercial Real Estate....Or Else

Listen to a recent podcast from the Commercial Real Estate Pro Network - "What Are Your Commercial Real Estate Communication Options"...with a focus on the benefits to CRE Investor/Developers, Facility/Property Mgrs, and tenants.

Do you know how to make sure that you have the right backbone solutions in place to meet all of your voice, computing, and other technology requirements? Do you even know what your needs really are and what solutions are available to meet them? Do you know where to get help (free) if you need it? Listen to this newest podcast from the Commercial Real Estate Pro Network to learn all this and more.

To take advantage of the FREE resource and support discussed in this podcast simply ask at the below link...easy as 1, 2, 3.

Network Solutions

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Wednesday, September 07, 2016

Network Design & Monitoring Can Be Complicated...Why Not Have All The Hard Work Done FOR You

This Free Resource Needs To Be In The Tool Box Of Every CIO, CTO, Telecom Mgr, & IT Director...Saves Time, Money, AND Effort

*** To take advantage of FREE real time quotes and support simply ask at the following link...easy as 1, 2, 3.

Free Network Solution Support

In a nutshell we offer a free service which advises clients in need of a new or upgraded network system (voice, data, or both) ... as well as network expansions ... on the best options to meet their requirements.

We also include FREE independent circuit monitoring.

We cover dedicated bandwidth circuits (e.g. T1 all the way through OCx), every flavor of ethernet and fiber, multi-site connectivity (e.g. MPLS), SDN, business VoIP systems (think enterprise level solutions), SIP, cloud computing, managed services, hosted PBX, network performance management, etc.

This includes help in Voice/Data network design decisions, FREE independent circuit monitoring, fitting the right system to verified requirements, ensuring you get exactly what you need (no more, no less), finding the lowest cost for the right solution, comparing available providers (70+) at the desired location (by cost, quality, capability, & customer service), helping with paperwork, providing ongoing consulation throughout the contract with the chosen provider (including renewal, expansion, or provider replacement when desired), & MORE.

Again, it's simple, all you have to do is ask at this link and we'll take it from there....

Free Network Solution Support

Want a low price guarantee with that?

We have you covered. Just click on the link above and find out.


Just What Every CIO, CTO, And COO Needs...All The Hard Work Done FOR You...FREE

One of the really attractive components of this no cost resource is the free independent circuit monitoring provided with EVERY circuit sourced through matter what type of circuit OR what provider is chosen.

The following article does a great job of explaining the benefits of that...

You Mean You Don't Have Independent Circuit Monitoring?...Sucks To Be You

Independent Circuit Monitoring IS The Answer...Don't Leave Home Without It

Given that the carriers are such a critical cog in the network world, being able to monitor their services, collect data, and analyze their performance is equally important. Circuit monitoring with real-life data takes the guesswork out of troubleshooting.

Carriers that have made continued investments in their properly designed infrastructure have nothing to fear with independent, third-party circuit monitoring. It’s the carriers who are on the threshold of having a major outage who should be worried.Much like a major earthquake, networks often give warning signs when they are on the cusp of failure. Ping times become longer. Traceroutes show a growing number of hops to reach the end destination. Often these warning signs happen right underneath the nose of the customer and the carrier, especially if the customer isn’t spending a fortune on the service. Knowing when the network is showing signs of weakness is critical to avoiding a network disaster.


WORTH A LISTEN...this free resource was featured on a podcast of the Commercial Real Estate Pro Network focusing on the benefits to CRE Investor/Developers, Facility/Property Mgrs and Owners, and tenants {e.g. Hotels/Resorts, corporate work sites, office buildings, industrial facilities, mall complexes, multi-family properties, WISP enterprises, etc}. Click on the link below to hear for yourself....

Commercial Real Estate Communication Solutions

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Saturday, September 03, 2016

Rapid Growth Of Medical Imaging Creates Challenges For Healthcare Bandwidth Requirements

Medical imaging studies, as part of a patient’s historical records, are subject to long-term security, integrity, and availability regulations defined by governing bodies. Examples include the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States and the Medical Device Directive (MDD) in the European Union. However, the change from film to digitized storage has created a new set of challenges and requirements.

Digital mammography and multidetector computed tomography (CT), coupled with post-processing techniques such as 3D and CAD, enable medical imaging to be used more extensively for diagnosis, not only in radiology but also in other departments such as cardiology. Dynamic studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable clinicians to image diseases and to increase the effectiveness of resulting therapies. These technologies enable medical imaging to be included in protocols for a wider class of clinical applications and, in some cases, replace invasive (and risky) diagnostic procedures.

The growing adoption rate of these medical imaging technologies is causing an exponential and often hard-to-predict increase in the volume of images that must be stored. The magnitude of the increasing storage requirements for medical providers is often tens to hundreds of terabytes per year. This growth makes it difficult for IT managers to ensure adequate storage capacity. These challenges also highlight the need for affordable yet flexible storage systems that enable growth on-demand. Information access and business continuity needs must be met from the provider’s perspective, while addressing the stringent regulatory requirements for data privacy and protection.

The mergers and consolidations that are so common in healthcare today have resulted in IT environments that most often do not work well together. Currentapplication architectures as well as the slow movement of the industry towards interoperability and the limited adoption of industry standards have created a utilization, management and access problem that is common to most providers.

The current healthcare infrastructure can best be described as complex, inflexible and inefficient. As a result, applications that depend on it are slow, exhibit bottlenecks, suffer unacceptable levels of application downtime due to single points, and require unnecessary amounts of dedicated resources. Managing this hybrid infrastructure demands expertise for each type of application and manufacturer at multiple levels, as well as resources to manage the environment across each storage platform. Infrastructure scaling and upgrades prove to be very costly and difficult due to the time, money and people required to perform them.

As a result of these inefficiencies, healthcare IT resources are severely underutilized with storage utilization running at between 15% and 30% over a 24-hour period.

A potential fix for these issues is use of a framework for the creation of an enterprisewide, grid-based virtual medical image storage system designed to enable healthcare organizations to share data across distributed sites. These solutions are meant to be complementary to PACS applications and extend the capabilities of these systems across a wide area network.

Many providers have implemented multiple PACS solutions across many geographies, each with its own storage environment. Each PACS implementation drives its own requirements for storage and administration. The application of grid technology enables the sharing of storage and allows the logical separation of the application from the underlying storage infrastructure. This means that multiple systems can share storage resources wherever they are available. Additionally, through their local applications, users can access remote images populated by other systems on the grid. Key benefits include higher utilization of existing storage investments, the migration from storage silos to grid-enabled storage pools that can be made available to all applications, and the ability for IT departments to administer the grid centrally from a single location.

For assistance in finding just the right grid-based storage system for your Medical organization and/or network architecture bandwidth solution for your PACS application(s).... comparing multiple providers available in your specific area....we highly recommend the no cost consulting services from: "Medical Imagery Bandwidth Solutions"

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